Fiber to Fabric

  • There is a variety of clothing material or fabric, Such as Cotton, Silk, Wool & polyester.
  • These fabrics are different in touch & texture.
  • Different type of clothing material is used to make different types of items like bedsheets, blankets, Curtains, table cloth towels & duster.
  • Fabrics are made up of long years worn together. The years are arranged together to make Cloth.
  • Each yarn is made up of fire, thin strands. These thin Strands of thread are made up of Still thinner Strards Called fibers.
  • Fabrics are made up of yarns & yarns are further made up of fibers.

Special points:

1. Yarn:- Loose thread That is worn or knitted to the made fabric. It is made up of fibers.

2. Fibers:- Thin Strands that are twisted to make yarn.

3. Difference b/w cloth & fabric:

  • Cloth à Woven or felted fabric made from wool or a similar fiber.
  • Fabric:- Cloth, typically produced by weaving or knitting textile fibers.

          “So all fabrics are clothes, but all Cloths are not fabrics”

Fibre:- Mainly there are two types of fibres –

Door Step Science

1. Natural fibre:- That fibres which are obtained from plant & animals are Called Natural fibres.

  • On the basis of procuring/obtain, Natural fibres are of two types –

A. Plant fibres:- Fibres that obtained from plants. Eg. Cotton & jute.

B. Animal fibres:- Fibres that obtained from animals. Eg. Silk & Wool.

  • Wool is obtained from the fleece of sheep or goat. It is also obtained from the hair of rabbits, yak and camels.

  • The silk fibre is drawn from the cocoon of Silkwarn.

2. Synthetic/Artificial Fibres:- Fibres that are made for chemical substances, which are not obtained from plant or animal sources.

  • Some examples of Synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon acyclic.

Some plant fibers:-

1. Cotton:-

  • Cotton fibres are obtained from the cotton plant.

  • The fruits of the Cotton plants (Cotton bolls) are about the size of a lemon.

  • After maturing, the bolls burst open and the Seeds covered with Cotton fibres are exposed.

  • From these bolls, Cotton is usually picked by hand.

  • Fibres are then Separated from the Seeds by Combing. This process is called ‘ginning’.

  • Ginning was traditionally done by hand.

  • These days, machines are also used for ginning.

  • Cotton plants are usually grown at places haring black Soil & warm climate.

Spinning a Cotton yarn:

  • The process of making yarn from fibres is Called ‘Spinning’.

  • In this process, fibres from a mass of Cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This brings the fibres together to form a yarn.

  • Takli & ‘charkha’ are hard Operated devices used for Spinning.

  • In India, pure Cotton Clothes are known as ‘Khadi’.

  • To popularise & promote Khadi, the government of India Constituted a body Called ‘Khadi & Village Industries Commission in 1956’

  • The spinning of yarn on a Large Scale is done with the help of Spinning machines. After Spinning, yarns are used for making fabrics.

Yarn to Fabric

  • These are two main methods of making fabric from yarns-

1. Weaving:- The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is Called wearing.

  • The weaving of fabric is done on looms. The loome may be hard Operated(handloom) or Power Operated (Powerloom).

2. Knitting:- In Knitting, a Single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric.

  • Knitting is done by hand and also on machines.

  • Socks and Sweaters are knitted fabrics.

History of Clothing material:

  • During ancient times; people used the bank & big leaves of trees or animal Skins & furs to Cover themselves.

  • When people Settle in agricultural Communities, they learned to wear twigs grass into mats & baskets.

  • The early orders ware fabrics made Out of Cotton that grew in the regions near the river gorge.

  • Flak is also a plant that gives natural fibers.

  • In ancient Egypt, Cotton, as well as flax, were Cultivated near the river Nile & were used for making Fabrics.

  • Saree, dhoti, lurgi, turban are used as unstitched pieces of fabrics.

  • With the invention of the Sewing needle, people Started Stitching fabrics to make Cloth.