Fiber to Fabric
There is a variety of clothing material or fabric, Such as Cotton, Silk, Wool & polyester.
These fabrics are different in touch & texture.
Different type of clothing material is used to make different types of items like bedsheets, blankets, Curtains, table cloth towels & duster.
Fabrics are made up of long years worn together. The years are arranged together to make Cloth.
Each yarn is made up of fire, thin strands. These thin Strands of thread are made up of Still thinner Strards Called fibers.
Fabrics are made up of yarns & yarns are further made up of fibers.
1. Yarn:- Loose thread That is worn or knitted to the made fabric. It is made up of fibers.
2. Fibers:- Thin Strands that are twisted to make yarn.
3. Difference b/w cloth & fabric:
- Cloth à Woven or felted fabric made from wool or a similar fiber.
- Fabric:- Cloth, typically produced by weaving or knitting textile fibers.
“So all fabrics are clothes, but all Cloths are not fabrics”
Fibre:- Mainly there are two types of fibres –
1. Natural fibre:- That fibres which are obtained from plant & animals are Called Natural fibres.
On the basis of procuring/obtain, Natural fibres are of two types –
A. Plant fibres:- Fibres that obtained from plants. Eg. Cotton & jute.
B. Animal fibres:- Fibres that obtained from animals. Eg. Silk & Wool.
Wool is obtained from the fleece of sheep or goat. It is also obtained from the hair of rabbits, yak and camels.
The silk fibre is drawn from the cocoon of Silkwarn.
2. Synthetic/Artificial Fibres:- Fibres that are made for chemical substances, which are not obtained from plant or animal sources.
Some examples of Synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon acyclic.
Some plant fibers:-
Cotton fibres are obtained from the cotton plant.
The fruits of the Cotton plants (Cotton bolls) are about the size of a lemon.
After maturing, the bolls burst open and the Seeds covered with Cotton fibres are exposed.
From these bolls, Cotton is usually picked by hand.
Fibres are then Separated from the Seeds by Combing. This process is called ‘ginning’.
Ginning was traditionally done by hand.
These days, machines are also used for ginning.
Cotton plants are usually grown at places haring black Soil & warm climate.
Spinning a Cotton yarn:
The process of making yarn from fibres is Called ‘Spinning’.
In this process, fibres from a mass of Cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This brings the fibres together to form a yarn.
Takli & ‘charkha’ are hard Operated devices used for Spinning.
In India, pure Cotton Clothes are known as ‘Khadi’.
To popularise & promote Khadi, the government of India Constituted a body Called ‘Khadi & Village Industries Commission in 1956’
The spinning of yarn on a Large Scale is done with the help of Spinning machines. After Spinning, yarns are used for making fabrics.
Yarn to Fabric
These are two main methods of making fabric from yarns-
1. Weaving:- The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is Called wearing.
The weaving of fabric is done on looms. The loome may be hard Operated(handloom) or Power Operated (Powerloom).
2. Knitting:- In Knitting, a Single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric.
Knitting is done by hand and also on machines.
Socks and Sweaters are knitted fabrics.
History of Clothing material:
During ancient times; people used the bank & big leaves of trees or animal Skins & furs to Cover themselves.
When people Settle in agricultural Communities, they learned to wear twigs grass into mats & baskets.
The early orders ware fabrics made Out of Cotton that grew in the regions near the river gorge.
Flak is also a plant that gives natural fibers.
In ancient Egypt, Cotton, as well as flax, were Cultivated near the river Nile & were used for making Fabrics.
Saree, dhoti, lurgi, turban are used as unstitched pieces of fabrics.
With the invention of the Sewing needle, people Started Stitching fabrics to make Cloth.