Table of Contents

Diversity in Living Organisms

Diversity :- it is the variety of living organisms which are present in particular area.

The term biodiversity is given by Walter G Rosen in 1986.

The warm and humid regions of the earth between “tropic of cancer” “tropic of Capricorn”, are rich in plant and animal life. this is called the region of “magadiversity”.

Classification

Definition:- It is the arrangement of organisms into groups and subgroups on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.

Characters used for classification :-

1. Complexity of cell or nucleus

a. Prokaryotic

b. Eukaryotic

2. Complexity of body organisation

a. Unicellular

b. Multicellular

3. Mode of nutrition

a. autotrophic

b. heterotrophic

Importance of Classification

1. Make the study of different type of organisms easy and systematic.

2. Helps in identification of known and unknown organism.

3. Gives the information of inter-relationship of organisms.

4. Provide information about phylogeny.

Hierarchy of Taxonomy

It is a system of classification into which taxonomic categories are arranged in descending order.

Binomial Nomenclature

It is given by carolus linnaeus.

Him full name is karl von linne.

He published 14 papers and also wrote out famous bool “systema naturae”.

Also called father of taxonomy.

Kingdom System

Two kingdom system :-

In Plantae includes :-

Bacteria, Lichens, Fungi, Algae, Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms.

In animal kingdom :-

Protozoans, Sponges, Hydra, Jelly fish, Worms, Insect, Spiders, Octopus, Star fish.

Five Kingdom Classification

It it given by R.H.whitteker, he  divided the organism into the following basis :-

1. Complexity of Cell or Nucleus :-

a. Prokaryotic

b. Eukaryotic

2. Complexity of Body Organisation :-

a. Unicellular

b. Multicellular

3. Mode of Nutrition :-

a. Autotrophic

b. Heterotrophic

Basics of Five Kingdom Classification

1. Complexity of cell :- On the basis of complexity of cell they divided the organism into prokaryotic and eukaryotic.

2. Complexity of body organisation :- On the basis of it organism can be unicellular or multicellular.

3. Mode of nutrition :- Organism can be autotrophic or heterotrophic.

Kingdom Monera

All the prokaryotic, unicellular  organisms are included in kingdom monera.

The genetic material is not organised into a nucleus.it lies directly inside the cytoplasm and is called nucleoid/incipient nucleus/gonophore.

Membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, plastids, lysosomes, are absent.

Monerans are basically unicellular. In filaments and colonies, the cells are similar and independent.